Water Pollution

 


On Earth there are about one and a half billion cubic meters of water, 97% of which consists of sea salt and the remaining 3% are freshwater, in form of lakes, rivers, glaciers and groundwater.


Usually we consider water as limitless, divided into only two varieties: fresh and salty. Actually, water can be distinguished in the basis of other characteristics:

  • physical characteristics (temperature, colour, turbidity);
  • chemical characteristics (salt, gas or chemicals content);
  • biological characteristics (presence of microorganisms).

Polluting water then means changing its characteristics so as to make it unfit for the purpose for which it is intended.

There are different types of pollution:

  • CIVIL pollution: it results from city drainage, when sewage pours untreated into rivers or directly into the sea;
  • INDUSTRIAL pollution: it consists of different substances that depend on industrial production;
  • AGRICULTURAL pollution: it is the consequence of an excessive use and misuse of fertilizers and pesticides, which, being generally water soluble, penetrate the soil and contaminate groundwater.

How to solve and avoid this problem?
Many factories are trying to give a hand, becoming more and more eco-friendly.
For example, industrial laundries, specialized in washing big quantities of laundry and textile, are improving their laundry equipment.
They have understood , in fact, that an autonomous system of wastewater treatment, duly authorized, can work with a very minimal environmental impact, in order to ensure that products used for washing don't pollute the water of seas and rivers.